I'm Alfred Salzman of 8630 SW Scholls Ferry Rd. #133 Beaverton, OR, 97008 USA.

Welcome to e-familytree.net. E-familytree.net is my personal genealogy hobby site. The data contained here has been gathered through 20 years of genealogy. Some small part of it is my original research, but most of it has been shared with me.

It is important to understand: This is SPECULATIVE DATA. Most of it is unverified. Use it for hints and pointers, but DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH!



You can leave a comment on each page here. If you want to be notified when this site changes, you can leave contact information here. I can always be reached at the mailing address above, or by email at genealogy at e-familytree dot net.
This website built on May 11, 2009.



 
 
Grand Duke Pavel Alexandrovich Romanov Of Russia and Grand Duchess Aleksandra Of Russia



Husband Grand Duke Pavel Alexandrovich Romanov Of Russia 1 2 3 4

           Born: 3 Oct 1860 - Pushkin, St Petersburg, Russia 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Jan 1919 - St Petersburg, St Petersburg, Russia 3
         Buried:  - St Peter & Paul, St Petersburg, St Petersburg, Russia 3


         Father: Tsar Aleksandr IV (Ii) Nicholoevich Romanov Of Russia (1818-1881) 1 2 3 5
         Mother: Czarine Mariya Maximiliane Wilhelmine Hesse Darmstadt Of Russia (1824-1880) 1 2 3 4 5


       Marriage: 16 Jun 1889 - Leningrad, Leningrad, Russia 3

   Other Spouse: Princess Alexandra Oldenburg Of Greece (1870-1891) 1 2 4 5 - 1889 4

   Other Spouse: Olga Karnovich Princess (1866-1929) 1 2 4 - 1902 - Leghorn 4

   Other Spouse: Olga Valerianovna Karnovich (      -      ) 3 - 10 Oct 1902 - Livorno, Livorno, Italy 3

Noted events in his life were:
• Alt. Birth 4, 3 Oct 1860

• Alt. Death 4, Fortress Of, Peter And Paul, Russia, Jan 1919




Wife Grand Duchess Aleksandra Of Russia 3

           Born: 30 Aug 1870 - Corfu, Corfu, Greece 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Sep 1891 - Iljinskoje, Moscow, Moscow, Russia 3
         Buried: 


         Father: King William George I Oldenburg Of The Greece & The Hellenes (1845-1913) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Queen Olga Constantinovna Romanov Of Greece (1851-1926) 1 2 3 4 5




General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Pavel Grand Duke Of /RUSSIA/

BURI PLAC St Peter & Paul Cathedral, St Petersburg, St Petersburg, Russia


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

TITL [GRAND DUCHESS OF RUSSIA]/


Ivan II The Gentle Of Moscow and Aleksandra



Husband Ivan II The Gentle Of Moscow 1

           Born: 1326
     Christened: 
           Died: 13 Nov 1359
         Buried: 


         Father: Ivan I Of Lithuania Kalita (1301-1341) 1
         Mother: Elena (      -1332) 1


       Marriage: 1345

   Other Spouse: Theodosia Of Briansk (      -1342) 1 - 1341




Wife Aleksandra 1

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1364
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Dmitry Of Moscow Donskoi 1 5

           Born: 12 Oct 1350 - , Moskva, Moskva, Russia 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 19 May 1389 5
         Buried:  - Archangel Cathedral, Moskva, Moskva, Russia 5
            AFN: 9R71-LT
         Spouse: Evdokiya Dmitrievna Princess Of Suzdal (Abt 1352-1407) 1 5
           Marr: 18 Jan 1366-1367 5



2 M Liubov' Of Moscow Ivanova 1

           Born: 1352
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Ivan 1

           Born: 1354
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



4 F Marie 1

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes (Husband)

1 UPDA 2 DATE 1353 2 PLAC Acceded: 2 SOUR S54


Prince of Vladimir.


General Notes for Child Dmitry Of Moscow Donskoi

1 UPDA 2 DATE 1359 2 PLAC Acceded: 2 SOUR S54


Prince of Vladimir.


Aleksandros Byzantine Emperor



Husband Aleksandros Byzantine Emperor 3 6

           Born: Abt 0867 - Of Constantinople, Constantinople, Turkey 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Jun 0913 3
         Buried: 


         Father: Emperor Basileos I Mamikonian Of The Byzantine Empire (0812-0886) 1 3 6
         Mother: Empress Eudoxia Ingerina Of The Byzantine Empire (Abt 0835-Between 0882) 3 6


       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Aleksandros, Emperor Of The /BYZANTINE EMPIRE/


Marquess Aleram Of Montferrat and Gerberga Of Italy



Husband Marquess Aleram Of Montferrat 6

           Born: Abt 0940 - Savona, Italy
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Guglielmus Of Torresana (Bef 0915-After 0925) 6
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 




Wife Gerberga Of Italy 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: King Berenger II Ivrea Of Italy (Abt 0928-0966) 1 3 6 7 8
         Mother: Princess Willa De Tuscany (Abt 3930-After 3966) 1 3 6 7





Children
1 M Marchese Anselm I Di Savona 6

           Born: Abt 0962 - Savona, Italy
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1014
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gisela Of Tuscany (      -      ) 6




General Notes (Husband)

!BIRTH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


Notes (Marriage)

!MARRIAGE:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


General Notes for Child Marchese Anselm I Di Savona

!BIRTH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged

!DEATH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


Aleran I Of Worms Count Of Worms



Husband Aleran I Of Worms Count Of Worms 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 F Wandilmode Of Worms 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eudes Of Troyes Count Of Troyes (      -After 0870) 6





Alan Fitz Walter 2nd Great and Aleste



Husband Alan Fitz Walter 2nd Great 1 6 9

           Born: Abt 1160 - Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1204 - Scotland
         Buried: 


         Father: Walter Fitz Alan 1st Great (Abt 1135-1177) 1 6 9
         Mother: Eschina De Londoniis (      -      ) 1 6


       Marriage: Abt 1188 - Scotland

   Other Spouse: Eva (      -      ) 1




Wife Aleste 1 6

           Born: Abt 1165 - Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1190 - Scotland
         Buried: 


         Father: Morgund Earl Of Marr (      -      ) 1
         Mother: 





Children
1 M Walter Stewart 3rd Great 1 6 9

           Born: Abt 1190 - Fordoun, Kincardineshire, Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1246 - Scotland
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Beatrix Angus (Abt 1198-After 1220) 1 6
           Marr: Abt 1219 - Scotland



2 M David Stewart 1 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes (Husband)

A Crusader with Richard Coeur-de-Lion. Occurs as a witness to 2 charters of William the Lion.


Notes (Marriage)

!MARRIAGE:SOURCE #38, SOURCE #38


General Notes for Child Walter Stewart 3rd Great

1 NAME FitzAlan // 1 UPDA 2 DATE 24 AUG 1230 2 PLAC High Steward of Scotland 2 SOUR S32


First to take the surname Stewart.Justiciary of Scotland


Prince Alexander Of Hesse And By The Rhine and Princess Julia Hauke Of Battenberg



Husband Prince Alexander Of Hesse And By The Rhine 1 3 4 5

           Born: 15 Jul 1823 - Darmstadt, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany 3 4 5
     Christened: 21 Aug 1823 - Darmstadt, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany 3 5
           Died: 1888 - Darmstadt, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany 3 4 5 10
         Buried: 19 Dec 1888 - Rosenhohe Mausol, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany 3 5
            AFN: B3RS-J0


         Father: Grand Duke Ludwig II Of Hesse & The Rhine (1777-1848) 1 3 4 5
         Mother: Grand Duchess Wilhelmine Luise Von Baden Von Hesse (1788-1836) 1 3 4 5


       Marriage: 1851 - Castle Church, Breslau, Sls, Prss 3 4




Wife Princess Julia Hauke Of Battenberg 1 3 4 5

           Born: 12 Nov 1825 - , Battenberg, Germany 3 4 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 1895 - Heiligenberg Cas, Strknb, H-Dr 3 4 5
         Buried: 22 Sep 1895 - Heiligenberg Mau, Jugenheim A.D. B, Strknb, H-Dr 3
            AFN: 1VG5-Z50


         Father: Count Hans Moritz Von Hauke Of Haucke (1775-1830) 1 3 4 5
         Mother: Sophie La Fontaine (1790-1831) 1 3 4 5





Children
1 F Princess Maria Caroline Of Battenberg 1 3 4 5

           Born: 15 Jul 1852 - Geneva, Geneve, Switzerland 3 4 5
     Christened: 10 Aug 1852 - Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland 3
           Died: 20 Jun 1923 - Schonberg, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt 3 4 5
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gustav Ernst Of Erbach-Schonb Prince (1840-1908) 1 3 4
           Marr: 29 Apr 1871 - Darmstadt, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt 3



2 M Marquess Louis Of Battenburg 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 24 May 1854 - Graz, Austria 3 4 5
     Christened: 17 Jun 1854 - Graz, Steiermark, Austria 3
           Died: 11 Sep 1921 - Naval Club, Piccadilly, London 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG5-XK9
         Spouse: Princess Victoria Alberta Von Hessen Of Hesse (1863-1950) 1 2 3 4 5
           Marr: 30 Apr 1884 - Darmstadt, Starkenburg, Hesse-Darmstadt 3 4 5



3 M Prince Alexander Joseph Of Bulgaria 1 3 4 5

           Born: 1857 - Battenfeld, Hessen, Germany 3 4 5
     Christened: 21 Apr 1857 3
           Died: 17 Nov 1893 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG5-Z7D
         Spouse: Countess Johanna Maria Louise Of Loisinger (1865-1951) 1 3 4
           Marr: 6 Feb 1889 3 4



4 M Prince Henry Maurice Of Battenburg 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 5 Oct 1858 - Milan, Italy 3 4 5
     Christened: 5 Nov 1858 - Milan, Milan, Italy 3
           Died: 20 Jan 1896 - At Sea On 'Blonde' 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG5-Z8L
         Spouse: Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore Wettin Of England (1857-1944) 1 2 3 4 5
           Marr: 23 Jul 1885 - Isle Of Wight 3 4 5



5 M Prince Franz Joseph Of Battenberg 1 3 4 5

           Born: 24 Sep 1861 - Padua, Padua, Itly 3 4 5
     Christened: 8 Oct 1861 3
           Died: 31 Jul 1924 3 4 5
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Princess Anna Of Montenegro (1874-1971) 1 3 4
           Marr: 6 May 1897 3




General Notes (Husband)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Prince Alexander of Hesse and by the Rhine 1823 - 1888.

There are several translations and variations of the full name 'Hesse and by the Rhine'. The family generally referred to themselves in conversation and writing as simply 'Hesse'. This was the original pre-Napoleonic name.

The younger sons of the Grand Dukes of Hesse (a small German state) are generally unknown. Prince Alexander is the exception to this rule. The Grand Ducal family were very adroit at making 'good' marriages. During the 19th century they provided Russia with two empresses, and one son-in-law for Queen Victoria.

By even greater chance the descendants of the family's black sheep Prince Alexander (the third son of Grand Duke Ludwig II and his wife Wilhelmina of Baden) have been in the 20th century the consorts of three European sovereigns:

Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg - Queen of Spain
Princess Louise of Battenberg - Queen of Sweden
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh - Consort of Elizabeth II

Prince Alexander's descendants currently occupy the Spanish throne and will in time sit on the throne of England.

What is remarkable about this is the fact that not only was Prince Alexander's own marriage one of the scandals of the 19th century, but also that his own parentage was the subject of scandal, it was openly said that Alexander's father, and that of his sister Marie, (who became Tsarina) was actually the Baron Augustus Senarxlens, their mother's chamberlain.

Whatever the truth, Prince Alexander's accepted father, The Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse, married his daughter Marie to Tsarevich of Russia, later Alexander II. The Grand Duke's younger son Prince Alexander decided that his future too lay within Russia. He followed the martial tradition of his family, and served in the Russian Army, where he became a distinguished soldier with a glittering career ahead of him. He even had a regiment of lancers named after him and was awarded the Cross of St. George. Of course the fact that his sister was the Tsarevna (Crown Princess) of Russia was not a disadvantage to his prospects.

Alexander however decided to ruin his own prospects, he fell in love with a Lady-in-Waiting to his sister Countess Julia von Hauke. An orphaned Polish ward of the Tsar.

At this time he was popular with (his sister's father-in-law) Tsar Nicholas I, who was considering him as a husband for his niece. When the Tsar heard of the romance, he forbade the couple to marry, it was unthinkable at that time that a person belonging to any Royal House could marry a mere countess. The Almanach de Gotha expressed clear rules on the subject of who could marry who.

Alexander fled to England to contemplate his future, he felt he could not live without Julia von Hauke. He returned to Russia for her, and the couple eloped from St. Perersburg and were married in Breslau in 1851

They returned to Hesse where his older brother Grand Duke Louis III was also outraged by the lowly dynastic status of his brother's Polish wife. Alexander was allowed to retain his rank of Prince, but the Countess was given the defunct title of Countess of Battenberg. (Battenberg is a town in the north of Hesse where they first lived in seclusion) Their children were to have no claim to the Grand Ducal Throne of Hesse. The Countess' rank was later elevated to that of a 'non royal' Princess as time passed, and they eventually returned to Darmstadt itself.

Having forgone his dynastic claims, Prince Alexander and his morganatic wife lived a quiet life. Their family was raised primarily at Heiligenberg Castle in Hesse.

Alexander of Hesse and Julia of Battenberg had five children, as though they were illigitemate, they took their mother's surname. The children were:-

Prince Louis of Battenberg 1854 - 1921
Princess Marie of Battenberg 1852 - 1923
Prince Alexander of Battenberg, 1857 - 1893
Prince Henry of Battenberg 1858 - 1896
Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg 1861 - 1924

Prince Alexander of Hesse died in 1888, Princess Julia of Battenberg, died at Schloss Heiligenberg, near Jugenheim in Germany in 1895 aged 70.

Their legacy lives on the royal houses of Europe


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Julie Therese, Princess of Battenberg.

DEAT PLAC Heiligenberg Castle B. Jugenheim A.D. Bergstrasse, Strknb, H-Dr

BURI PLAC Heiligenberg Mausoleum, Jugenheim A.D. Bergstrasse, Strknb, H-Dr


General Notes for Child Princess Maria Caroline Of Battenberg

[royalty.ged]

NAME Maria Caroline, Princess Of /BATTENBERG/


General Notes for Child Marquess Louis Of Battenburg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Admiral of the Fleet Prince Louis of Battenberg, later Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven (24 May 1854-11 September 1921) was a minor German prince who married into the British Royal Family and pursued a distinguished career in the Royal Navy, eventually serving as First Sea Lord from 1912 to 1914. He was the father of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and the maternal grandfather of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.


General Notes for Child Prince Alexander Joseph Of Bulgaria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Alexander Joseph of Battenburg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886)

Alexander was the second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and the Rhine by the latter's morganatic marriage with Julia, countess von Hauke. The countess and her descendants gained the title of Princess of Battenberg (derived from an old residence of the grand-dukes of Hesse) and the style Durchlaucht or "Serene Highness", in 1858. Prince Alexander was a nephew of Russia's Tsar Alexander II, who had married a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse; his mother, a daughter of Count Moritz von Hauke, had been lady-in-waiting to the tsaritsa.

In his boyhood and early youth Alexander frequently visited St Petersburg, and he accompanied his uncle, the Tsar, who was much attached to him, during the Bulgarian campaign of 1877. When, under the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Bulgaria became an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, the Tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly-created throne, and the Grand Sobranie unanimously elected Prince Alexander as Prince of Bulgaria (April 29, 1879). At that time he held a commission as a lieutenant in the Prussian life-guards at Potsdam. Before proceeding to Bulgaria, Prince Alexander paid visits to the Tsar at Livadia, to the courts of the great powers and to the sultan; a Russian warship then conveyed him to Varna, and after taking the oath to the new constitution at Tirnova (July 8, 1879) he went to Sofia. The people everywhere en route greeted him with immense enthusiasm. (For the political history of Prince Alexander's reign, see History of Bulgaria.)

The new ruling prince had not had any previous training in governing, and a range of problems confronted him. He found himself caught between the official representatives of Russia, who wanted him to behave as a roi fainιant, and the Bulgarian politicians, who actively pursued their own quarrels with a violence that threatened the stability of Bulgaria.

After attempting to govern under these conditions for nearly two years, the prince, with the consent of the Russian tsar, Alexander assumed absolute power (May 9, 1881). A specially convened assembly voted (July 13, 1881) for suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period of seven years. The experiment, however, proved unsuccessful; the monarchical coup infuriated Bulgarian Liberal and Radical politicians, and the real power passed to two Russian generals, Sobolev and Kaulbars, specially despatched from St Petersburg. The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September 18, 1883). A serious breach with Russia followed, and the part which the prince subsequently played in encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians widened that breach.

The revolution of Philippopolis (September 18, 1885), which brought about the union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria, took place with Alexander's consent, and he at once assumed the government of the province. In the year which followed, the prince gave evidence of considerable military and diplomatic ability. He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Serbian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan of Serbia into Serbian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27). Although the intervention of Austria protected Serbia from the consequences of defeat, Prince Alexander's success sealed the union with Eastern Rumelia, and after long negotiations the sultan Abdul Hamid II nominated the Prince of Bulgaria as governor-general of that province for five years (April 5, 1886).

This arrangement, however, cost Alexander much of his popularity in Bulgaria, while discontent prevailed among a number of his officers, who considered themselves slighted in the distribution of rewards at the close of the campaign. A military plot formed, and on the night of August 20, 1886 the conspirators seized the prince in the palace at Sofia and compelled to sign his abdication; they then hurried him to the Danube at Rakhovo, transported him on his yacht to Reni, and handed him over to the Russian authorities, who allowed him to proceed to Lemberg. However he soon returned to Bulgaria as a result of the success of the counter-revolution led by Stefan Stambolov, which overthrew the provisional government set up by the Russian party at Sofia. His position, however, had become untenable, partly as a result of an ill-considered telegram which he addressed to tsar Alexander III of Russia on his return. The attitude of Bismarck, who, in conjunction with the Russian and Austrian governments, forbade him to punish the leaders of the military conspiracy, also undermined Alexander's position. He therefore issued a manifesto resigning the throne, and left Bulgaria on September 8, 1886.

Alexander now retired into private life. A few years later he married Fraulein Loisinger, an actress, and assumed the style of Count Hartenau (February 6, 1889). The last years of his life he spent principally at Gratz, where he held a local command in the Austrian army, and where he died on October 23, 1893. His remains, brought to Sofia, received a public funeral there, and eventually ended in a mausoleum erected to his memory.

Prince Alexander possessed much charm and amiability of manner; he was tall, dignified and strikingly handsome. Competent authorities have generally recognised his capabilities as a soldier. As a ruler he committed some errors, but his youth and inexperience and the extreme difficulty of his position account for much. He had some aptitude for diplomacy, and his intuitive insight and perception of character sometimes enabled him to outwit the crafty politicians who surrounded him. His principal fault remained a want of tenacity and resolution; his tendency to unguarded language undoubtedly increased the number of his enemies.

See:

* Drandar, Le Prince Alexandre de Battenberg en Bulgarie (Paris, 1884)
* Koch, Furst Alexander von Bulgarien (Darmstadt, 1887)
* Matveyev, Bulgarien nach dem Berliner Congress (Petersburg, 1887)
* Bourchier, "Prince Alexander of Battenberg," in Fortnightly Review, January 1894.


General Notes for Child Prince Henry Maurice Of Battenburg

[royalty.ged]

NAME Heinrich Moritz, Prince of Battenberg.


General Notes for Child Prince Franz Joseph Of Battenberg

[royalty.ged]

NAME Franz Joseph, Prince Of /BATTENBERG/


Alexander



Husband Alexander 1

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 F Judith Alexander Lady 1

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: William Trumbull (      -      ) 1





Alexander Of Netherlands



Husband Alexander Of Netherlands 1 2 3 4

           Born: 1818 3 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1848 3 4
         Buried: 


         Father: King William II Of Netherlands (1792-1849) 1 2 3 4
         Mother: Anna Pavlovna Romanov (1795-1865) 1 2 3 4


       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

!Lines of Succession.


Alexander



Husband Alexander (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Carl Christian Of Austria Archduke
         Mother: Marie-Astrid


       Marriage: 




Wife (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Alexander



Husband Alexander 3

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1425 - , Executed 3
         Buried: 


         Father: Murdoch Duke Of Albany Regent Scotland (1362-1425) 3
         Mother: Isabel Of Lennox (      -Between 1456) 3


       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

!Lines of Succession, table 13.


Earl Alexander George Of Athlone and Princess Alice Wettin



Husband Earl Alexander George Of Athlone 4

           Born: 1874 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1957 4
         Buried: 


         Father: Duke Franz Paul Karl Of Teck (1837-1900) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Mary Adelaide Hanover (1833-1897) 1 2 3 4 5


       Marriage: 




Wife Princess Alice Wettin 1 2 3 4

           Born: 25 Feb 1883 - Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England 3 4
     Christened: 26 Mar 1883 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England 3
           Died: 3 Jan 1981 - Kensington Palace, Kensington, London, England 3 4
         Buried: 8 Jan 1981 - Frogmore House, Windsor, Berkshire, England 3


         Father: Leopold George Duncan Albert Wettin Prince (1853-1884) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Helena Frederica Of Waldeck Waldeck & Pyrmont Princess (1861-1922) 1 2 3 4 5



   Other Spouse: Alexander George Of Teck Earl Of Athlone (1874-1957) 1 2 3 5 - 10 Feb 1904 - St. George's Cha, Windsor, Berkshire, England 3



Children
1 M Rupert Vicount Trematon 4

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1928 4
         Buried: 



2 F May Cambridge Lady (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry Abel Smith Col. Sir (1900-      ) 1 2 4




General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

Alice, Countess of Athlone; Lived in an apartment of Kensington Palace called, Clock House. aka PRincess Alice of Albany.


Alexander Helios



Husband Alexander Helios (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Triumvir Marcus Antonius Of Rome (      -      ) 6
         Mother: Queen Cleopatra VII Of Egypt (      -      ) 6


       Marriage: 




Wife (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



King Alexander I Of Scotland and Queen Sybilla Elizabeth Of Scotland



Husband King Alexander I Of Scotland 1 4 5 6 7

            AKA: The Fierce
           Born: 1077 - Dumbarton 4 5
     Christened: 1107-1124 - King Of Scotland
           Died: 23 Apr 1124 - Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland 4 5
         Buried: 25 Apr 1124 - Dunfermline's Abbey Church 3 5
            AFN: 8XJ3-9S


         Father: King Malcolm III Ceanmor Of Scotland (Abt 1033-1093) 1 4 5 6 7
         Mother: Queen Ingeborg Finnsdatter Of Scotland (Abt 1021-Abt 1066) 1 3 4 5 6 7 11


       Marriage: 1107 - Of, Scotland 3

Noted events in his life were:
• Baptism, Reigned 8 Jan 1107-1124




Wife Queen Sybilla Elizabeth Of Scotland 1 3 6 7 12

           Born: 1092 - Domfront, Normandy 13
     Christened: 
           Died: 12 Jul 1122 - Island Of The Woman, Loch Tay 3
         Buried:  - Island Of The Woman, Loch Tay


         Father: King Henry I Plantaganet Of England (1070-1135) 1 5 6 7 8
         Mother: Sybilla Corbet (Abt 1075-1156) 1 6 7 8





Children
1 M Malcolm Macheth 1

           Born: Abt 1110
     Christened: 
           Died: 1168
         Buried: 




General Notes (Husband)

1 UPDA 2 DATE 8 JAN 1107 2 PLAC Acceded:


House of Dunkeld. Built many new castles including the new royal castle at Stirling.


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Sibyl Elizabeth Queen Of /SCOTLAND/


General Notes for Child Malcolm Macheth

1 UPDA 2 DATE 1157 2 PLAC Acceded:


Alexander I Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia



Husband Alexander I Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died:  - [Abt. 450 BC]
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Amyntas Of Macedonia 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes (Husband)

!DEATH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


King Alexander II Of Scotland and Queen Joane Planagenet Of Scotland



Husband King Alexander II Of Scotland 1 3 4 5 6

           Born: 24 Aug 1198 - , Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Jul 1249 - , Kerrera, Argyllshire, Scotland 5
         Buried:  - Melrose Abbey, Melrose, Roxburghshire, Scotland 5
            AFN: 8XJ7-BJ


         Father: King William I Of Scotland (1143-1214) 1 3 4 5 6
         Mother: Queen Ermengarde De Beaumont Of Scotland (Abt 1165-1233) 1 3 4 5 6


       Marriage: 19 Jun 1221 - , York, Yorkshire, England 3

   Other Spouse: Marie De Coucy (Abt 1210-1249) 1 3 4 5 6 - 15 May 1239 - Boves, Picardy, Kent, England 5

Noted events in his life were:
• Alt. Birth 3 4, 24 Aug 1198

• Alt. Death 3 4, 1249




Wife Queen Joane Planagenet Of Scotland 1 3 4 5 6

            AKA: Joane Princess Of England
           Born: 22 Jul 1210 - Coucy, Alsne, France 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Mar 1237-1238 - London, Middlesex, England 3
         Buried:  - Tarrant, Keynstan, Dorsetshire, England 3 5
            AFN: 8XJ6-1T


         Father: King John Plantagenet Of England (1166-1216) 1 3 5 6 7
         Mother: Queen Isbelle D' Angouleme Of England (Abt 1180-1245) 1 3 4 5 6 7



   Other Spouse: Alexander II Canmore King Of Scotlands (1198-1249) 6 - 19 Jun 1221 - York, Scotland

Noted events in her life were:
• Alt. Birth 5, , Coucy, Alsne, France, 22 Jul 1210

• Alt. Death 5, , London, Middlesex, England, 4 Mar 1237-1238


General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Alexander II King Of /SCOTLAND/


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

TITL [QUEEN OF SCOTLAND]/


King Alexander II Of Scotland and Marie De Coucy



Husband King Alexander II Of Scotland 1 3 4 5 6

           Born: 24 Aug 1198 - , Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Jul 1249 - , Kerrera, Argyllshire, Scotland 5
         Buried:  - Melrose Abbey, Melrose, Roxburghshire, Scotland 5
            AFN: 8XJ7-BJ


         Father: King William I Of Scotland (1143-1214) 1 3 4 5 6
         Mother: Queen Ermengarde De Beaumont Of Scotland (Abt 1165-1233) 1 3 4 5 6


       Marriage: 15 May 1239 - Boves, Picardy, Kent, England 5

   Other Spouse: Queen Joane Planagenet Of Scotland (1210-1237) 1 3 4 5 6 - 19 Jun 1221 - , York, Yorkshire, England 3

Noted events in his life were:
• Alt. Birth 3 4, 24 Aug 1198

• Alt. Death 3 4, 1249




Wife Marie De Coucy 1 3 4 5 6

           Born: Abt 1210 - Of, Boves, Somme, France 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 1249 14
         Buried:  - , Newbottle, Durham, England 5
            AFN: 9FTT-PT


         Father: Enguerrand De Coucy Baron (Abt 1182-1242) 1 5
         Mother: Marie De Montmirail (Abt 1184-Abt 1267) 1 5



   Other Spouse: John De Brienne (      -      ) 3 - 1257 3

   Other Spouse: Jean De Brienne (Abt 1225-1296) 1 6 - Bef 6 Jun 1257

Noted events in her life were:
• Alt. Birth, Abt 1210


Noted events in their marriage were:
• Alt. Marriage, After 1238

• Alt. Marriage, 1239


Children
1 M King Alexander III Canmore Of Scotland 1 3 4 5 6

           Born: 4 Sep 1241 - Roxburgh 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1286 - Kinghorne, Fife 4
         Buried: 29 Mar 1286 - , Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland 5
            AFN: 8XJ7-CP
         Spouse: Princess Margaret Anjou Plantagenet Of England (1240-1274) 1 3 4 5 6
           Marr: 26 Dec 1251 - , York, Yorkshire, England 5 15
         Spouse: Yolande De Dreux Queen Of Scotland (Abt 1263-1322) 1 3 4 5
           Marr: 14 Oct 1285 - , Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, Scotland 5



2 F Marjorie 1

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Alan Durward Sir (      -      ) 1




General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Alexander II King Of /SCOTLAND/


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

!Lines of Succession, table 12.


General Notes for Child King Alexander III Canmore Of Scotland

[royalty.ged]

NAME Alexander III, King Of /SCOTLAND/


Alexander II Of Epirus and Olympias Of Epirus



Husband Alexander II Of Epirus 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Pyrrhus Of Epirus (      -      ) 6
         Mother: Lanassa Of Syracuse (      -      ) 6


       Marriage: 




Wife Olympias Of Epirus 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Pyrrhus Of Epirus (      -      ) 6
         Mother: 





Children
1 F Phthia Of Epirus 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Demetrius II 'Aetolicus' Of Macedonia (      -      ) 6





Prince Alexander Joseph Of Bulgaria and Countess Johanna Maria Louise Of Loisinger



Husband Prince Alexander Joseph Of Bulgaria 1 3 4 5

           Born: 1857 - Battenfeld, Hessen, Germany 3 4 5
     Christened: 21 Apr 1857 3
           Died: 17 Nov 1893 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG5-Z7D


         Father: Prince Alexander Of Hesse And By The Rhine (1823-1888) 1 3 4 5
         Mother: Princess Julia Hauke Of Battenberg (1825-1895) 1 3 4 5


       Marriage: 6 Feb 1889 3 4




Wife Countess Johanna Maria Louise Of Loisinger 1 3 4

           Born: 1865 3 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1951 3 4
         Buried: 


         Father: John Loisinger (      -      ) 1 3 4
         Mother: 




General Notes (Husband)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Alexander Joseph of Battenburg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886)

Alexander was the second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and the Rhine by the latter's morganatic marriage with Julia, countess von Hauke. The countess and her descendants gained the title of Princess of Battenberg (derived from an old residence of the grand-dukes of Hesse) and the style Durchlaucht or "Serene Highness", in 1858. Prince Alexander was a nephew of Russia's Tsar Alexander II, who had married a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse; his mother, a daughter of Count Moritz von Hauke, had been lady-in-waiting to the tsaritsa.

In his boyhood and early youth Alexander frequently visited St Petersburg, and he accompanied his uncle, the Tsar, who was much attached to him, during the Bulgarian campaign of 1877. When, under the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Bulgaria became an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, the Tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly-created throne, and the Grand Sobranie unanimously elected Prince Alexander as Prince of Bulgaria (April 29, 1879). At that time he held a commission as a lieutenant in the Prussian life-guards at Potsdam. Before proceeding to Bulgaria, Prince Alexander paid visits to the Tsar at Livadia, to the courts of the great powers and to the sultan; a Russian warship then conveyed him to Varna, and after taking the oath to the new constitution at Tirnova (July 8, 1879) he went to Sofia. The people everywhere en route greeted him with immense enthusiasm. (For the political history of Prince Alexander's reign, see History of Bulgaria.)

The new ruling prince had not had any previous training in governing, and a range of problems confronted him. He found himself caught between the official representatives of Russia, who wanted him to behave as a roi fainιant, and the Bulgarian politicians, who actively pursued their own quarrels with a violence that threatened the stability of Bulgaria.

After attempting to govern under these conditions for nearly two years, the prince, with the consent of the Russian tsar, Alexander assumed absolute power (May 9, 1881). A specially convened assembly voted (July 13, 1881) for suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period of seven years. The experiment, however, proved unsuccessful; the monarchical coup infuriated Bulgarian Liberal and Radical politicians, and the real power passed to two Russian generals, Sobolev and Kaulbars, specially despatched from St Petersburg. The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September 18, 1883). A serious breach with Russia followed, and the part which the prince subsequently played in encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians widened that breach.

The revolution of Philippopolis (September 18, 1885), which brought about the union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria, took place with Alexander's consent, and he at once assumed the government of the province. In the year which followed, the prince gave evidence of considerable military and diplomatic ability. He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Serbian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan of Serbia into Serbian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27). Although the intervention of Austria protected Serbia from the consequences of defeat, Prince Alexander's success sealed the union with Eastern Rumelia, and after long negotiations the sultan Abdul Hamid II nominated the Prince of Bulgaria as governor-general of that province for five years (April 5, 1886).

This arrangement, however, cost Alexander much of his popularity in Bulgaria, while discontent prevailed among a number of his officers, who considered themselves slighted in the distribution of rewards at the close of the campaign. A military plot formed, and on the night of August 20, 1886 the conspirators seized the prince in the palace at Sofia and compelled to sign his abdication; they then hurried him to the Danube at Rakhovo, transported him on his yacht to Reni, and handed him over to the Russian authorities, who allowed him to proceed to Lemberg. However he soon returned to Bulgaria as a result of the success of the counter-revolution led by Stefan Stambolov, which overthrew the provisional government set up by the Russian party at Sofia. His position, however, had become untenable, partly as a result of an ill-considered telegram which he addressed to tsar Alexander III of Russia on his return. The attitude of Bismarck, who, in conjunction with the Russian and Austrian governments, forbade him to punish the leaders of the military conspiracy, also undermined Alexander's position. He therefore issued a manifesto resigning the throne, and left Bulgaria on September 8, 1886.

Alexander now retired into private life. A few years later he married Fraulein Loisinger, an actress, and assumed the style of Count Hartenau (February 6, 1889). The last years of his life he spent principally at Gratz, where he held a local command in the Austrian army, and where he died on October 23, 1893. His remains, brought to Sofia, received a public funeral there, and eventually ended in a mausoleum erected to his memory.

Prince Alexander possessed much charm and amiability of manner; he was tall, dignified and strikingly handsome. Competent authorities have generally recognised his capabilities as a soldier. As a ruler he committed some errors, but his youth and inexperience and the extreme difficulty of his position account for much. He had some aptitude for diplomacy, and his intuitive insight and perception of character sometimes enabled him to outwit the crafty politicians who surrounded him. His principal fault remained a want of tenacity and resolution; his tendency to unguarded language undoubtedly increased the number of his enemies.

See:

* Drandar, Le Prince Alexandre de Battenberg en Bulgarie (Paris, 1884)
* Koch, Furst Alexander von Bulgarien (Darmstadt, 1887)
* Matveyev, Bulgarien nach dem Berliner Congress (Petersburg, 1887)
* Bourchier, "Prince Alexander of Battenberg," in Fortnightly Review, January 1894.


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Johanna Maria Louise Countess Of /HARTENAU BATTENBERG LOISINGER/


Alexander Of Yugoslavia Prince



Husband Alexander Of Yugoslavia Prince (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Alexander Alexander Crown Prince
         Mother: Dona Maria Da Gloria Princess


       Marriage: 




Wife (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Alexander 'The Great' Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia



Husband Alexander 'The Great' Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia 6

           Born:  - [Abt. 356 BC] Pella, Macedonia
     Christened: 
           Died:  - [Abt. 323 BC]
         Buried: 


         Father: Philip II Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia (      -      ) 6
         Mother: Olympias Of Epirus Princess Of Epirus (      -      ) 6


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Roxana (      -      ) 6

Noted events in his life were:
• Photos, Alexgreat




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 F Dau Of Alexander 'The Great' Of Macedonia 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Achaeus Of Syria (      -      ) 6




General Notes (Husband)

Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), king of Macedonia, c o n q u eror of the Persian Empire, and one of the greates t m il it ar y geniuses of all times. Alexander, born in Pe lla , th e a nci ent capital of Macedonia, was the son of P hili p II , kin g o f Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princes s o f Epiru s. Ari stot le was Alexander's tutor; he gave A lexa nder a t horoug h trai ning in rhetoric and literatur e an d stimulate d his i nteres t in science, medicine, an d phil osophy. In t he summe r of 33 6 BC Philip was assass inated , and Alexande r ascende d to th e Macedonian throne . He fo und himself sur rounded b y enemie s at home and th reatene d by rebellion ab road. Alex ander dis posed quickl y of al l conspirators an d domestic en emies by o rderin g their ex ecution. Then he d escended on Th essaly, whe r e partisan s of independence ha d gained ascenda ncy, and r es tored Ma cedonian rule. Befor e the end of the s ummer o f 33 6 BC h e had reestablished hi s position in Greec e an d was el ect ed by a congress of sta tes at Corinth. In 3 3 5 BC as gen e ral of the Greeks in a c ampaign against th e P ersians, o rigi nally planned by his f ather, he carrie d ou t a succes sful ca mpaign against the d efecting Thrac ians, p enetrati ng to th e Danube River. On h is return h e crushed i n a si ngle week t he threatening Ill yrians an d then hastene d t o Thebes, whic h had revolted. H e too k the city by sto r m and razed it, spa ring only the t emp les of the gods an d t he house of the Gree k lyric poe t P indar, and sellin g the s urviving inhabitants , about 80 0 0 in number, int o slavery . Alexander's promptnes s in cr u shing the revol t of Thebe s brought the other Gree k sta te s into instan t and abject s ubmission. Alexander beg a n hi s war agains t Persia in the s pring of 334 BC by cr ossi n g the Hellesp ont (modern Dardane lles) with an arm y of 35 , 00 0 Macedoni an and Greek troops ; his chief off icers, al l Mace donians , included Antigonus , Ptolemy, an d Seleucus . At th e rive r Granicus, near the a ncient cit y of Troy, h e attacke d a n army of Persians and G reek ho plites (mercen aries) tot a ling 40,000 men. His force s de feated the enem y and, acc ordi ng to tradition, lost on l y 110 men; after t his battl e all t he states of Asia Mi no r submitted to him . In pass ing throug h Phrygia he i s sai d to have cut wit h his swor d the Gordia n knot. Con tinuin g to advance south ward, Ale xander encounte red th e main Per sian army, comman ded by K ing Darius III, a t I ssus, in nort heastern Syria . The siz e of Darius's arm y i s unknown; th e ancient tradi tion tha t it contained 5 00,00 0 men is now c onsidered a fa ntasti c exaggeration . The Battl e of Issus, i n 333, ende d i n a great victor y for Alexander . Cut off fro m his bas e , Darius fled nor thward, abandonin g his mother , wife, a n d children to Al exander, who treate d them with t he resp ec t due to royal ty. Tyre, a strongly fo rtified seap ort , off ered obstina te resistance, but Alexande r took i t b y stor m in 332 af ter a siege of seven months. Al exand er ca pture d Gaza ne xt and then passed on into Egypt, w he re he w as g reete d as a deliverer. By these successes h e s ecured c ont ro l of the entire eastern Mediterranean co astlin e. La t e r in 332 he founded, at the mouth of the Ni le Rive r , th e c ity of Alexandria, which later became th e liter ary , sc ient ific, and commercial center of the Gre ek wor ld. Cyr en e, th e capital of the ancient North Afric an ki ngdom of C y renaic a, submitted to Alexander soon aft erwa rd, extendin g h is do minion to Carthaginian territory . I n the spring o f 33 1 Ale xander made a pilgrimage to t h e great temple an d oracl e o f Amon-Ra, Egyptian god o f th e sun, whom the Gr eeks iden ti fied with Zeus. The ea rlie r Egyptian pharaoh s were believ e d to be sons of Amo n-Ra ; and Alexander, th e new ruler o f E gypt, wanted th e go d to acknowledge him a s his son. Th e pil grimage app arent ly was successful, an d it may have co nfirme d in hi m a be lief in his own divin e origin. Turnin g northwa r d again , he reorganized his for ces at Tyre and s tarted f o r Baby lon with an army of 40,00 0 infantry and 700 0 cav alry . Cr ossing the Euphrates and t he Tigris rivers , h e met Dari u s at the head of an army o f unknown size , which , accordi n g to the exaggerated accou nts of antiq uity, wa s said t o num ber a million men; thi s army he co mpletely de feate d in th e Battle of Gaugamela , on Octobe r 1, 331 BC. D ari us fled a s he had done at Iss us and wa s later slain b y t wo of his ow n generals. Babylo n surre ndered after Gauga m ela, and the ci ty of Susa wit h its e normous treasures w a s soon conquered . Then, in mid winte r, Alexander force d hi s way to Persepoli s, the Persi a n capital. After plun derin g the royal treasuri es and ta k ing other rich booty , he bur ned the city durin g a drun ke n binge and thus com pleted th e destruction of th e anc ien t Persian Empire. Hi s domain no w extended along a n d beyon d the southern shor es of the Cas pian Sea, inclu din g moder n Afghanistan an d Baluchistan, an d northwar d into Ba ctri a and Sogdiana , the modern Wester n Turkist an, also kno w n as Central As ia. It had taken Alex ande r only three yea rs , from the sp ring of 330 BC to the s p ring of 327 BC, t o mas ter this v ast area. In order to co m plete his conques t of th e remna nts of the Persian Empi re , which had once i ncluded p ar t of western India, Alex ande r crossed the Indu s Rive r i n 326 BC, and invaded th e Punja b as far as the r ive r Hyphas is (modern Beas); a t this poin t the Macedonia n s rebelled an d refused to g o farther. He t hen construct e d a fleet and pa ssed dow n the Indus, reachin g its mout h i n September 325 BC . Th e fleet then sailed t o the Pers ia n Gulf. With his arm y , he returned overland ac ross th e de sert to Media. Sho rtage s of food and water caus ed se ver e losses and hards hip amon g his troops. Alexande r spe nt a bout a year orga nizing his d ominions and completi n g a sur vey of the Per sian Gulf in pre paration for furth e r conque sts. He arri ved in Babylon in th e spring of 32 3 BC . In Ju ne he cont racted a fever and died . He left hi s empi re, i n his ow n words, "to the strongest" ; this amb iguous t esta ment r esulted in dire conflicts for h alf a c entury. Al exa nde r was one of the greatest generals o f al l time, not e d f or his brilliance as a tactician and tro o p leader a n d f or the rapidity with which he could traver s e grea t exp anse s of territory. He was usually brave an d gen er ous, bu t cou ld be cruel and ruthless when politic s deman d ed. Th e theor y has been advanced that he was act uall y an al coho lic havi ng, for example, killed his frien d C litus i n a dr unken fur y. He later regretted this ac t de eply. A s a stat esman an d ruler he had grandiose plan s ; according t o man y modern h istorians he cherished a s c heme for unitin g th e East and t he West in a world empi re , a new and enligh te ned "world br otherhood of all men . " He trained thousan d s of Persian you ths in Macedonia n t actics and enrolled t he m in his army. H e himself ado pte d Persian manners and m arri ed Eastern wive s, namely , Rox ana (died about 311 BC) , daugh ter of Oxyarte s of S ogdian a, and Barsine (or State ira; die d about 323BC) , t he elde r daughter of Darius; an d he encour aged and bri b ed his o fficers to take Persian w ives. Shortl y befor e he d ied, A lexander ordered the Gree k cities to wor shi p him a s a go d. Although he probably ga ve the order f o r politica l rea sons, he was, in his own vi ew and tha t of hi s contemp ora ries, of divine birth. The o rder wa s largely nu llifie d b y his death shortly after h e issue d it. To bind hi s con q uests together, Alexander fo unde d a number of cities , mo s t of them named Alexandria , al ong his line of march; t h es e cities were well locate d , well paved, and provided w i t h good water supplies. G ree k veterans from his army se ttl e d in them; young men , trad ers, merchants, and schola rs we r e attracted to th em; Gree k culture was introduced ; and t h e Greek languag e became w idely known. Thus, Alex ander vas tl y extende d the influenc e of Greek civilizatio n and prepa re d th e way for the king doms of the Hellenist ic period an d t h e conquests of the R oman Empire. Source : "Alexander t h e Gre at," Microsoft(R ) Encarta(R) 98 Ency clopedia. (c ) 199 3-199 7 Microsoft Cor poration. All right s reserved . ------- - Th e Egyptians, op pressed under th e Persian r ule, welcome d Ale xander the Gr eat with open a rms when h e entered the c ountr y in 332 B.C . While ther e he visite d the Oracle of Am on, a t Siwa, whe re he was d eclared "t he son of Amon." Exac tly ho w this ha ppened i s unclear . One story is that eithe r upon e nterin g or exi ting th e temple he was greeted by th e pries t as " my son. " Alex ander's army and followers wer e not i n a str ategi c posi tion to see the priest and though t the wo rds c am e fro m the god himself. However it happened , from th a t p oin t on Alexander was instated as a son of go d, lik e t h e p haraohs of old. Alexander initiated the build in g of A le x andria, but never lived to see the city. He le f t Egy p t in 3 31 B.C. and left Cleomenes of Naukratis i n cha rg e o f the te rritory. This position was later claim ed b y P tole my. When A lexander died, Ptolemy's generals d ivi ded th e k ingdom. Sour ce: www.touregypt.netAlexander t h e Great (3 56 -323 BC), kin g of Macedonia, conqueror o f t hePersian Emp i re, and on e o f the greatest militar y geni uses of all ti m es. Alexander, b orn in Pella, th e ancien t capital of Mac ed onia, was the son of Philip II , kin g o f Macedonia, an d o f Olympias, a prince ss of Ep irus.A ristotle was Alexand er' s tutor; he gave A lex ande r a tho rough training inrhet ori c and literature and st i mulate d his interest in scien c e , medicine, and philos ophy . I n the summer of 336 BC Ph ili p was assassinated , andAlex a nder asce nded to the Mace doni an throne. He f ound himse lf s urroundedby enemies at h ome a nd threatene d b y rebel lion ab road. Alexander dispos edquic kly of al l conspirato rs and dom estic enemies by or d erin g theire xecution. The n he descende d on Thessaly, wh ere par tisan s of independe ncehad gaine d a scendancy, an d restore d M acedonian rule . Before the end oft he summer o f 336 B C h e had rees tabl ished his position in G reece an d wase lecte d by a congres s of states at Corinth. I n 33 5 B C a s genera l of theGree ks in a campaign against th e P ersia ns, origina lly planne d by hisfather , he carrie d o u t a successful cam paign ag ainst the defectingThraci ans , pen etrating to the D an ub e River. On his return h e crus hed i n asingle week th e th reatening Illyrians an d then ha sten e d to Thebes, whic hh ad revolted. He too k the city b y storm a nd razed it, sp a ring only thetem p les of the god s and the h ouse of th e Gre ek lyric poe t Pindar, andsellin g the survivi ng inha bi tant s, abou t 8000 in number, int o slavery.Alexand er' s promptne ss i n crushing the revolt o f Th ebes brough t t he otherGre e k states into instant an d abject submissi on. Al exande r beg an his war against Pers ia in the sprin g of 33 4 B C bycrossi ng the Hellespont (mo d ern Dardanell es) wi th an a rmy of 35 , 000Macedonian an d Greek troops ; his c hief office rs, al l M acedonians, inc luded Antigon us, Pt olemy, and Sele ucus . At the river Gran icus, nearth e anc ien t city of Troy , h e attacked an arm y of Persian s an d Greekhoplites (mercen ar ies) totaling 40 ,0 00 men . Hi s forces defeated the enemya n d, according t o traditi on , lost only 110 men; after t h i s battle all th estate s o f Asia Minor submitted to him . In p assing throug h Phr yg ia he issai d to have cut with h is swor d the Gordi an k n ot. Continuing to advancesouthward , Alexand er enco u nt e red the main Persian army, commande d by KingDar ius I I I , at Issus, in northeastern Syria . Th e size of Dari u s ' s army isunknown; the ancient tradition t hat it conta i n e d 500,000 men i s nowconsidered a fantasti c exaggera ti on . T he Battle of Issus, in 333, endedin a gre at vict o r y f or Al exander. Cut off from his base, Darius f ledn or thward , aband oning his mother, wife, an d childre n t o Al exander , whotrea ted them with the respect due t o royal ty . Tyre , a strongl y fo rtifiedseaport, offere d obstina t e resista nce, but Alex ander took it by stor m in332 aft e r a si eg e of seven months . Alexander captu red Gaza nex t a nd thenp assed on into Egypt , where he w a s greeted a s a de liverer . By thesesuccesses h e secure d control of t he entir e east ern Mediterr aneancoast line . Later in 33 2 he founded , a t the mouth of the Nile Ri v er, thecity o f Alexandri a , wh ich later became the lit erary , scientif ic, andcommerci a l center of the Greek wo rld. Cyr e ne, th e capital of t h e ancientNorth African k ingdom of Cy renai ca, submitte d t o Alexander soon afterw ard, extending h i s dominion t o Cart haginian territory . In the spring of 3 3 1 Alexande r mad e a pilgrimage to t he great temple andor acl e of Amon -Ra, E g yptian god o f the sun, whom the Gree ks ide ntified with Ze us. The ear lier Egyptian pharaohs we r e belie ved t o be son s ofAmon -Ra; and Alexander, the ne w ruler of E gyp t, wante d th e god toackn owledge him as h is son. The pil g rimage ap p arently was successful, andi t may have confirm e d i n h i m a belief in his own divin e origin. Turningnort hwa r d agai n, he reorganized his for ces a t Tyre and start e d fo rBabyl on with an army of 40,0 00 infantry and 7000 c a valry . Cross ing theE uphrates an d the Tigris rivers, h e m et Dari us a t the head of an arm y ofunknown size, whi ch , a ccordin g t o the exaggerated a ccounts of antiquity ,wa s said to numb e r a million men; t his arm y he comple tel y defeated in the B attle of Gaugame la, on October 1 , 331 B C. Darius fled a s h e h ad done at Issus and was l ater slai n by two of his o wn g enerals. Ba bylon surrende redafter Ga ug amela, and th e cit y of Sus a with its enor mous treasure s wassoon conquer ed. Th en, i n midwinte r , Alexander force d his way toPersep olis, t h e Persia n capital. After plunde ring the royal tre a suries a nd ta king other rich booty, h e burned the city du rin g a dru n ken bingeand thus complet e d the destructio n o f the anci en t Persian Empire. Hisdom ain now extende d alon g and be yond t h e southern shores o f the CaspianSe a, inclu din g modern Afg hanistan and Baluch istan, and nor thw ard i n toBactria and So gdiana, the moder n Western Tur kistan , als o known as Central Asia. It ha d t aken Alexand er on ly thre e years, from the sp ring of 330 B Cto the spr in g of 327 BC , to mast er this vas t area. In o rder to co m plete his conq uest of the remnants o f the Pers ian Empi r e, which had onc e includ ed part of weste rn India , Alex an der crossed theIn dus River in 326 BC, and i nvade d th e Pu nja b as far as th e riverHyphasis (modern Beas ) ; a t thi s point the Macedonia ns rebelled andrefus e d t o g o farth er. He then constructe d a fleet and pass ed dow n theI ndus , reaching its mout h i n September 32 5 BC. Th e fleet th e n sailed tothe Persia n Gulf. With hi s army, h e returned o v er land across the de sertto Media . Shortage s of food an d wa ter caused severe lo sses an d hardship amo ng his troo ps. Ale xander spent abou t a ye ar organizing hi s dominion sand compl eting a surv e y o f the Persian Gulf i n prepara tion for furt herconquest s . He arrived in Babylo n in th e sprin g of 323 B C. In Ju n e hecontracted a feve r and di ed. He left his empir e, i n hi s own words, "to th e strong est"; this ambiguous te s tamen t resulted in dire c onflict s forhalf a century. A lexan de r was one of the grea test g enerals of all time , noted f o r hisbrilliance as a t actic ia n and troop lea der and fo r th e rapidity withwhic h h e could traverse gr eat expanse s of te rrito ry. He wa s us ually braveand gen erous, but cou ld be cr uel and ruthl es s when politics de manded . Thetheor y has bee n advance d t hat he was actual ly an alcoholic havi ng, forexa mple, k il led hi s frien d Clitus in a drunken fur y. He late r regr e ttedthis ac t deeply. As a statesman and r ule r he ha d g r andiose pl ans;according to many modern hist orians he c h er ishe d a scheme for unitin g theEast and th e West i n a wo r l d empire, a new and enlightened "worldbrot herhoo d of a l l m en. " He trained thousands of Persian yout hs i nMace don ian t actics and enrolled them in his army . H e h imse lf ad optedPe rsian manners and married Eastern wive s , na mely, R oxana (di ed about 311 BC), daughter of Oxyar t e s of Sogdia na, and Bar sine (or Stateira; diedabout 32 3 BC) , the eld e r daughter o f Darius; and he encourage d an d bri bedhis o fficers to tak e Persian wives. Short l y bef ore h e died, A lexanderordere d the Greek cities t o worshi p him a s a god . Although he pro b ablygave the o rder fo r politica l reaso ns, he was, in hi s own view an d that of his contempo rari e s, of divine birth . The orde r was larg ely nullifie d byhi s death shortly afte r he is sued it. T o bind his conq uest s together, Alexander f oun ded a numbe r of cities, mos t o f them named Alexa ndri a , along his l ine of march; the s e cities werewell locat ed, w ell paved , and provided w i t h good water supplies . Greekvet eran s from his army set tl ed in them; young me n, traders, me r ch ants,and scholar s we re attracted to t hem; Greek cultu r e was introduced; a ndth e Greek langua g e became widel y know n. Thus, Alexande r vas tly extende dthe influence o f Greek ci vilization a n d prepa red th e way for the kingd omsof the Hel lenistic p eriod an d th e conquests of the Ro man E mpire. Sou rce: "Al exander t h e Great," Microsoft(R ) Encarta(R) 98 Ency cloped ia.(c) 19 9 3-1997 Microsof t Co rporation. All rights r eser ved. -- ---- -- The Egyptians , oppressed under the Persi a n rule , welcom ed Alexander t heGreat with open arms w he n h e e ntered th e country in 3 32 B.C. While therehe visite d t h e Oracle o f Amon, at Siw a, whe re he was declared "t h e so n ofAmon. " Exactly ho w this happened is unclear. O n e stor y is th a t eitherupo n entering or exiting the te mpl e he wa s greet ed by the p riest as "myson." Alexand e r's a rmy and f ollowe rs were n ot in a strategic positi on tose e the pries t and t hough t the word s came from th e god him self. However it hap pen ed, from that point on A lexander wa s instate d a s a s o n of god, like the pharao hs of old. Al exander init iate d th e building of Alexandr ia,but n ever l ived to see t h e city . He left Egypt in 3 31 B.C. and leftC leomenes o f Nauk rati s in charg e of th e territory. This p osition w aslater c lai med by Ptolemy . When Alexander died , Ptolemy ' s general s d ividedthe k ingdom. Source: www.tou regypt.n et

!BIRTH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged

!DEATH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


Alexander 'The Great' Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia and Roxana



Husband Alexander 'The Great' Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia 6

           Born:  - [Abt. 356 BC] Pella, Macedonia
     Christened: 
           Died:  - [Abt. 323 BC]
         Buried: 


         Father: Philip II Of Macedonia King Of Macedonia (      -      ) 6
         Mother: Olympias Of Epirus Princess Of Epirus (      -      ) 6


       Marriage: 

Noted events in his life were:
• Photos, Alexgreat




Wife Roxana 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


General Notes (Husband)

Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), king of Macedonia, c o n q u eror of the Persian Empire, and one of the greates t m il it ar y geniuses of all times. Alexander, born in Pe lla , th e a nci ent capital of Macedonia, was the son of P hili p II , kin g o f Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princes s o f Epiru s. Ari stot le was Alexander's tutor; he gave A lexa nder a t horoug h trai ning in rhetoric and literatur e an d stimulate d his i nteres t in science, medicine, an d phil osophy. In t he summe r of 33 6 BC Philip was assass inated , and Alexande r ascende d to th e Macedonian throne . He fo und himself sur rounded b y enemie s at home and th reatene d by rebellion ab road. Alex ander dis posed quickl y of al l conspirators an d domestic en emies by o rderin g their ex ecution. Then he d escended on Th essaly, whe r e partisan s of independence ha d gained ascenda ncy, and r es tored Ma cedonian rule. Befor e the end of the s ummer o f 33 6 BC h e had reestablished hi s position in Greec e an d was el ect ed by a congress of sta tes at Corinth. In 3 3 5 BC as gen e ral of the Greeks in a c ampaign against th e P ersians, o rigi nally planned by his f ather, he carrie d ou t a succes sful ca mpaign against the d efecting Thrac ians, p enetrati ng to th e Danube River. On h is return h e crushed i n a si ngle week t he threatening Ill yrians an d then hastene d t o Thebes, whic h had revolted. H e too k the city by sto r m and razed it, spa ring only the t emp les of the gods an d t he house of the Gree k lyric poe t P indar, and sellin g the s urviving inhabitants , about 80 0 0 in number, int o slavery . Alexander's promptnes s in cr u shing the revol t of Thebe s brought the other Gree k sta te s into instan t and abject s ubmission. Alexander beg a n hi s war agains t Persia in the s pring of 334 BC by cr ossi n g the Hellesp ont (modern Dardane lles) with an arm y of 35 , 00 0 Macedoni an and Greek troops ; his chief off icers, al l Mace donians , included Antigonus , Ptolemy, an d Seleucus . At th e rive r Granicus, near the a ncient cit y of Troy, h e attacke d a n army of Persians and G reek ho plites (mercen aries) tot a ling 40,000 men. His force s de feated the enem y and, acc ordi ng to tradition, lost on l y 110 men; after t his battl e all t he states of Asia Mi no r submitted to him . In pass ing throug h Phrygia he i s sai d to have cut wit h his swor d the Gordia n knot. Con tinuin g to advance south ward, Ale xander encounte red th e main Per sian army, comman ded by K ing Darius III, a t I ssus, in nort heastern Syria . The siz e of Darius's arm y i s unknown; th e ancient tradi tion tha t it contained 5 00,00 0 men is now c onsidered a fa ntasti c exaggeration . The Battl e of Issus, i n 333, ende d i n a great victor y for Alexander . Cut off fro m his bas e , Darius fled nor thward, abandonin g his mother , wife, a n d children to Al exander, who treate d them with t he resp ec t due to royal ty. Tyre, a strongly fo rtified seap ort , off ered obstina te resistance, but Alexande r took i t b y stor m in 332 af ter a siege of seven months. Al exand er ca pture d Gaza ne xt and then passed on into Egypt, w he re he w as g reete d as a deliverer. By these successes h e s ecured c ont ro l of the entire eastern Mediterranean co astlin e. La t e r in 332 he founded, at the mouth of the Ni le Rive r , th e c ity of Alexandria, which later became th e liter ary , sc ient ific, and commercial center of the Gre ek wor ld. Cyr en e, th e capital of the ancient North Afric an ki ngdom of C y renaic a, submitted to Alexander soon aft erwa rd, extendin g h is do minion to Carthaginian territory . I n the spring o f 33 1 Ale xander made a pilgrimage to t h e great temple an d oracl e o f Amon-Ra, Egyptian god o f th e sun, whom the Gr eeks iden ti fied with Zeus. The ea rlie r Egyptian pharaoh s were believ e d to be sons of Amo n-Ra ; and Alexander, th e new ruler o f E gypt, wanted th e go d to acknowledge him a s his son. Th e pil grimage app arent ly was successful, an d it may have co nfirme d in hi m a be lief in his own divin e origin. Turnin g northwa r d again , he reorganized his for ces at Tyre and s tarted f o r Baby lon with an army of 40,00 0 infantry and 700 0 cav alry . Cr ossing the Euphrates and t he Tigris rivers , h e met Dari u s at the head of an army o f unknown size , which , accordi n g to the exaggerated accou nts of antiq uity, wa s said t o num ber a million men; thi s army he co mpletely de feate d in th e Battle of Gaugamela , on Octobe r 1, 331 BC. D ari us fled a s he had done at Iss us and wa s later slain b y t wo of his ow n generals. Babylo n surre ndered after Gauga m ela, and the ci ty of Susa wit h its e normous treasures w a s soon conquered . Then, in mid winte r, Alexander force d hi s way to Persepoli s, the Persi a n capital. After plun derin g the royal treasuri es and ta k ing other rich booty , he bur ned the city durin g a drun ke n binge and thus com pleted th e destruction of th e anc ien t Persian Empire. Hi s domain no w extended along a n d beyon d the southern shor es of the Cas pian Sea, inclu din g moder n Afghanistan an d Baluchistan, an d northwar d into Ba ctri a and Sogdiana , the modern Wester n Turkist an, also kno w n as Central As ia. It had taken Alex ande r only three yea rs , from the sp ring of 330 BC to the s p ring of 327 BC, t o mas ter this v ast area. In order to co m plete his conques t of th e remna nts of the Persian Empi re , which had once i ncluded p ar t of western India, Alex ande r crossed the Indu s Rive r i n 326 BC, and invaded th e Punja b as far as the r ive r Hyphas is (modern Beas); a t this poin t the Macedonia n s rebelled an d refused to g o farther. He t hen construct e d a fleet and pa ssed dow n the Indus, reachin g its mout h i n September 325 BC . Th e fleet then sailed t o the Pers ia n Gulf. With his arm y , he returned overland ac ross th e de sert to Media. Sho rtage s of food and water caus ed se ver e losses and hards hip amon g his troops. Alexande r spe nt a bout a year orga nizing his d ominions and completi n g a sur vey of the Per sian Gulf in pre paration for furth e r conque sts. He arri ved in Babylon in th e spring of 32 3 BC . In Ju ne he cont racted a fever and died . He left hi s empi re, i n his ow n words, "to the strongest" ; this amb iguous t esta ment r esulted in dire conflicts for h alf a c entury. Al exa nde r was one of the greatest generals o f al l time, not e d f or his brilliance as a tactician and tro o p leader a n d f or the rapidity with which he could traver s e grea t exp anse s of territory. He was usually brave an d gen er ous, bu t cou ld be cruel and ruthless when politic s deman d ed. Th e theor y has been advanced that he was act uall y an al coho lic havi ng, for example, killed his frien d C litus i n a dr unken fur y. He later regretted this ac t de eply. A s a stat esman an d ruler he had grandiose plan s ; according t o man y modern h istorians he cherished a s c heme for unitin g th e East and t he West in a world empi re , a new and enligh te ned "world br otherhood of all men . " He trained thousan d s of Persian you ths in Macedonia n t actics and enrolled t he m in his army. H e himself ado pte d Persian manners and m arri ed Eastern wive s, namely , Rox ana (died about 311 BC) , daugh ter of Oxyarte s of S ogdian a, and Barsine (or State ira; die d about 323BC) , t he elde r daughter of Darius; an d he encour aged and bri b ed his o fficers to take Persian w ives. Shortl y befor e he d ied, A lexander ordered the Gree k cities to wor shi p him a s a go d. Although he probably ga ve the order f o r politica l rea sons, he was, in his own vi ew and tha t of hi s contemp ora ries, of divine birth. The o rder wa s largely nu llifie d b y his death shortly after h e issue d it. To bind hi s con q uests together, Alexander fo unde d a number of cities , mo s t of them named Alexandria , al ong his line of march; t h es e cities were well locate d , well paved, and provided w i t h good water supplies. G ree k veterans from his army se ttl e d in them; young men , trad ers, merchants, and schola rs we r e attracted to th em; Gree k culture was introduced ; and t h e Greek languag e became w idely known. Thus, Alex ander vas tl y extende d the influenc e of Greek civilizatio n and prepa re d th e way for the king doms of the Hellenist ic period an d t h e conquests of the R oman Empire. Source : "Alexander t h e Gre at," Microsoft(R ) Encarta(R) 98 Ency clopedia. (c ) 199 3-199 7 Microsoft Cor poration. All right s reserved . ------- - Th e Egyptians, op pressed under th e Persian r ule, welcome d Ale xander the Gr eat with open a rms when h e entered the c ountr y in 332 B.C . While ther e he visite d the Oracle of Am on, a t Siwa, whe re he was d eclared "t he son of Amon." Exac tly ho w this ha ppened i s unclear . One story is that eithe r upon e nterin g or exi ting th e temple he was greeted by th e pries t as " my son. " Alex ander's army and followers wer e not i n a str ategi c posi tion to see the priest and though t the wo rds c am e fro m the god himself. However it happened , from th a t p oin t on Alexander was instated as a son of go d, lik e t h e p haraohs of old. Alexander initiated the build in g of A le x andria, but never lived to see the city. He le f t Egy p t in 3 31 B.C. and left Cleomenes of Naukratis i n cha rg e o f the te rritory. This position was later claim ed b y P tole my. When A lexander died, Ptolemy's generals d ivi ded th e k ingdom. Sour ce: www.touregypt.netAlexander t h e Great (3 56 -323 BC), kin g of Macedonia, conqueror o f t hePersian Emp i re, and on e o f the greatest militar y geni uses of all ti m es. Alexander, b orn in Pella, th e ancien t capital of Mac ed onia, was the son of Philip II , kin g o f Macedonia, an d o f Olympias, a prince ss of Ep irus.A ristotle was Alexand er' s tutor; he gave A lex ande r a tho rough training inrhet ori c and literature and st i mulate d his interest in scien c e , medicine, and philos ophy . I n the summer of 336 BC Ph ili p was assassinated , andAlex a nder asce nded to the Mace doni an throne. He f ound himse lf s urroundedby enemies at h ome a nd threatene d b y rebel lion ab road. Alexander dispos edquic kly of al l conspirato rs and dom estic enemies by or d erin g theire xecution. The n he descende d on Thessaly, wh ere par tisan s of independe ncehad gaine d a scendancy, an d restore d M acedonian rule . Before the end oft he summer o f 336 B C h e had rees tabl ished his position in G reece an d wase lecte d by a congres s of states at Corinth. I n 33 5 B C a s genera l of theGree ks in a campaign against th e P ersia ns, origina lly planne d by hisfather , he carrie d o u t a successful cam paign ag ainst the defectingThraci ans , pen etrating to the D an ub e River. On his return h e crus hed i n asingle week th e th reatening Illyrians an d then ha sten e d to Thebes, whic hh ad revolted. He too k the city b y storm a nd razed it, sp a ring only thetem p les of the god s and the h ouse of th e Gre ek lyric poe t Pindar, andsellin g the survivi ng inha bi tant s, abou t 8000 in number, int o slavery.Alexand er' s promptne ss i n crushing the revolt o f Th ebes brough t t he otherGre e k states into instant an d abject submissi on. Al exande r beg an his war against Pers ia in the sprin g of 33 4 B C bycrossi ng the Hellespont (mo d ern Dardanell es) wi th an a rmy of 35 , 000Macedonian an d Greek troops ; his c hief office rs, al l M acedonians, inc luded Antigon us, Pt olemy, and Sele ucus . At the river Gran icus, nearth e anc ien t city of Troy , h e attacked an arm y of Persian s an d Greekhoplites (mercen ar ies) totaling 40 ,0 00 men . Hi s forces defeated the enemya n d, according t o traditi on , lost only 110 men; after t h i s battle all th estate s o f Asia Minor submitted to him . In p assing throug h Phr yg ia he issai d to have cut with h is swor d the Gordi an k n ot. Continuing to advancesouthward , Alexand er enco u nt e red the main Persian army, commande d by KingDar ius I I I , at Issus, in northeastern Syria . Th e size of Dari u s ' s army isunknown; the ancient tradition t hat it conta i n e d 500,000 men i s nowconsidered a fantasti c exaggera ti on . T he Battle of Issus, in 333, endedin a gre at vict o r y f or Al exander. Cut off from his base, Darius f ledn or thward , aband oning his mother, wife, an d childre n t o Al exander , whotrea ted them with the respect due t o royal ty . Tyre , a strongl y fo rtifiedseaport, offere d obstina t e resista nce, but Alex ander took it by stor m in332 aft e r a si eg e of seven months . Alexander captu red Gaza nex t a nd thenp assed on into Egypt , where he w a s greeted a s a de liverer . By thesesuccesses h e secure d control of t he entir e east ern Mediterr aneancoast line . Later in 33 2 he founded , a t the mouth of the Nile Ri v er, thecity o f Alexandri a , wh ich later became the lit erary , scientif ic, andcommerci a l center of the Greek wo rld. Cyr e ne, th e capital of t h e ancientNorth African k ingdom of Cy renai ca, submitte d t o Alexander soon afterw ard, extending h i s dominion t o Cart haginian territory . In the spring of 3 3 1 Alexande r mad e a pilgrimage to t he great temple andor acl e of Amon -Ra, E g yptian god o f the sun, whom the Gree ks ide ntified with Ze us. The ear lier Egyptian pharaohs we r e belie ved t o be son s ofAmon -Ra; and Alexander, the ne w ruler of E gyp t, wante d th e god toackn owledge him as h is son. The pil g rimage ap p arently was successful, andi t may have confirm e d i n h i m a belief in his own divin e origin. Turningnort hwa r d agai n, he reorganized his for ces a t Tyre and start e d fo rBabyl on with an army of 40,0 00 infantry and 7000 c a valry . Cross ing theE uphrates an d the Tigris rivers, h e m et Dari us a t the head of an arm y ofunknown size, whi ch , a ccordin g t o the exaggerated a ccounts of antiquity ,wa s said to numb e r a million men; t his arm y he comple tel y defeated in the B attle of Gaugame la, on October 1 , 331 B C. Darius fled a s h e h ad done at Issus and was l ater slai n by two of his o wn g enerals. Ba bylon surrende redafter Ga ug amela, and th e cit y of Sus a with its enor mous treasure s wassoon conquer ed. Th en, i n midwinte r , Alexander force d his way toPersep olis, t h e Persia n capital. After plunde ring the royal tre a suries a nd ta king other rich booty, h e burned the city du rin g a dru n ken bingeand thus complet e d the destructio n o f the anci en t Persian Empire. Hisdom ain now extende d alon g and be yond t h e southern shores o f the CaspianSe a, inclu din g modern Afg hanistan and Baluch istan, and nor thw ard i n toBactria and So gdiana, the moder n Western Tur kistan , als o known as Central Asia. It ha d t aken Alexand er on ly thre e years, from the sp ring of 330 B Cto the spr in g of 327 BC , to mast er this vas t area. In o rder to co m plete his conq uest of the remnants o f the Pers ian Empi r e, which had onc e includ ed part of weste rn India , Alex an der crossed theIn dus River in 326 BC, and i nvade d th e Pu nja b as far as th e riverHyphasis (modern Beas ) ; a t thi s point the Macedonia ns rebelled andrefus e d t o g o farth er. He then constructe d a fleet and pass ed dow n theI ndus , reaching its mout h i n September 32 5 BC. Th e fleet th e n sailed tothe Persia n Gulf. With hi s army, h e returned o v er land across the de sertto Media . Shortage s of food an d wa ter caused severe lo sses an d hardship amo ng his troo ps. Ale xander spent abou t a ye ar organizing hi s dominion sand compl eting a surv e y o f the Persian Gulf i n prepara tion for furt herconquest s . He arrived in Babylo n in th e sprin g of 323 B C. In Ju n e hecontracted a feve r and di ed. He left his empir e, i n hi s own words, "to th e strong est"; this ambiguous te s tamen t resulted in dire c onflict s forhalf a century. A lexan de r was one of the grea test g enerals of all time , noted f o r hisbrilliance as a t actic ia n and troop lea der and fo r th e rapidity withwhic h h e could traverse gr eat expanse s of te rrito ry. He wa s us ually braveand gen erous, but cou ld be cr uel and ruthl es s when politics de manded . Thetheor y has bee n advance d t hat he was actual ly an alcoholic havi ng, forexa mple, k il led hi s frien d Clitus in a drunken fur y. He late r regr e ttedthis ac t deeply. As a statesman and r ule r he ha d g r andiose pl ans;according to many modern hist orians he c h er ishe d a scheme for unitin g theEast and th e West i n a wo r l d empire, a new and enlightened "worldbrot herhoo d of a l l m en. " He trained thousands of Persian yout hs i nMace don ian t actics and enrolled them in his army . H e h imse lf ad optedPe rsian manners and married Eastern wive s , na mely, R oxana (di ed about 311 BC), daughter of Oxyar t e s of Sogdia na, and Bar sine (or Stateira; diedabout 32 3 BC) , the eld e r daughter o f Darius; and he encourage d an d bri bedhis o fficers to tak e Persian wives. Short l y bef ore h e died, A lexanderordere d the Greek cities t o worshi p him a s a god . Although he pro b ablygave the o rder fo r politica l reaso ns, he was, in hi s own view an d that of his contempo rari e s, of divine birth . The orde r was larg ely nullifie d byhi s death shortly afte r he is sued it. T o bind his conq uest s together, Alexander f oun ded a numbe r of cities, mos t o f them named Alexa ndri a , along his l ine of march; the s e cities werewell locat ed, w ell paved , and provided w i t h good water supplies . Greekvet eran s from his army set tl ed in them; young me n, traders, me r ch ants,and scholar s we re attracted to t hem; Greek cultu r e was introduced; a ndth e Greek langua g e became widel y know n. Thus, Alexande r vas tly extende dthe influence o f Greek ci vilization a n d prepa red th e way for the kingd omsof the Hel lenistic p eriod an d th e conquests of the Ro man E mpire. Sou rce: "Al exander t h e Great," Microsoft(R ) Encarta(R) 98 Ency cloped ia.(c) 19 9 3-1997 Microsof t Co rporation. All rights r eser ved. -- ---- -- The Egyptians , oppressed under the Persi a n rule , welcom ed Alexander t heGreat with open arms w he n h e e ntered th e country in 3 32 B.C. While therehe visite d t h e Oracle o f Amon, at Siw a, whe re he was declared "t h e so n ofAmon. " Exactly ho w this happened is unclear. O n e stor y is th a t eitherupo n entering or exiting the te mpl e he wa s greet ed by the p riest as "myson." Alexand e r's a rmy and f ollowe rs were n ot in a strategic positi on tose e the pries t and t hough t the word s came from th e god him self. However it hap pen ed, from that point on A lexander wa s instate d a s a s o n of god, like the pharao hs of old. Al exander init iate d th e building of Alexandr ia,but n ever l ived to see t h e city . He left Egypt in 3 31 B.C. and leftC leomenes o f Nauk rati s in charg e of th e territory. This p osition w aslater c lai med by Ptolemy . When Alexander died , Ptolemy ' s general s d ividedthe k ingdom. Source: www.tou regypt.n et

!BIRTH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged

!DEATH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


Earl Alexander X Of Glencairn Cunningham



Husband Earl Alexander X Of Glencairn Cunningham 1 3

           Born: Abt 1636 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 F Countess Margaret Cunningham Of Lauderdale 1 2 3

           Born: 1662 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 12 May 1742 - Hawthornden 3
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Earl John Maitland Of Lauderdale (1655-1710) 1 2 3




General Notes for Child Countess Margaret Cunningham Of Lauderdale

[royalty.ged]

TITL [CntsofLauderdale]


Nicholas Nicholajievic Romanov Grand Duke and Alexandra



Husband Nicholas Nicholajievic Romanov Grand Duke 1 2 4

           Born: 27 Jul 1831 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1891 4
         Buried: 


         Father: Viceroy Nikolai I Romanov Of The Crimea (1796-1855) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Tsarine Charlotte Hohenzollern Of Russia (Abt 1798-1860) 1 2 3 4 5


       Marriage: 1856 4




Wife Alexandra 1 2 4

           Born: 1838 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1900 4
         Buried: 



Alexandra



Husband

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife Alexandra (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Crown Prince Henri Of Luxembourg
         Mother: Maria Teresa Mestre





King Edward VII Wettin Of England and Princess Alexandra Of Denmark



Husband King Edward VII Wettin Of England 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 9 Nov 1841 - Buckingham, Palace, London, England 3 4 5
     Christened: 25 Jan 1842 - St. George Chapel, Windsor, Berkshire, England 3
           Died: 6 May 1910 - Buckingham, Palace, London, England 3 4 5
         Buried: 20 May 1910 - Windsor, Berkshire, England 3 4 5
            AFN: 1VG5-V7V


         Father: Francis Albert Augustas Charles Emanuel Prince Consort (1819-1861) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Queen Victoria Hanover Of England (1819-1901) 1 2 4 5


       Marriage: 10 Mar 1863 - St. George Chap., Windsor, England 3 4 5

Noted events in his life were:
• Baptism, St George's Chapel Windsor Castle Berks., 25 Jan 1842




Wife Princess Alexandra Of Denmark 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 1 Dec 1844 - Yellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark 3 4 5
     Christened: 7 Feb 1845 - Kobenhavn, Kobenhaven, Denmark 3 5
           Died: 20 Nov 1925 - Sandringham, Norfolk, England 3 4 5
         Buried: 28 Nov 1925 - St. George Chap., Windsor, Berkshire, England 3 4 5
            AFN: 9FWT-ZF


         Father: Christian IX Denmark King Of Denmark (1818-1906) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Louise Of Hesse-Cassel Luise Princess (1817-1898) 1 2 3 4 5





Children
1 M Albert Victor Christian Wettin Duke 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 8 Jan 1864 - Frogmore House, Windsor, Berkshire, England 3 4 5
     Christened: 10 Mar 1864 - Buckinghampalace, Westminster, Middlesex, England 3
           Died: 14 Jan 1892 - Sandringham, Norfolk, England 3 4 5
         Buried: 20 Jan 1892 - Windsor, Berkshire, England 3 4
            AFN: 1VG5-VJQ
         Spouse: Annie Crook (      -1920) 1 2
           Marr: Abt 1885



2 M King George V Windsor Of England 1 2 3 4 5

            AKA: George V Windsor
           Born: 3 Jun 1865 - Marlborough Hse, London, England 3 4
     Christened: 7 Jul 1865 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England 3 4 5
           Died: 20 Jan 1936 - Sandringham, Norfolk, England 3 4
         Buried: 28 Jan 1936 - Windsor Castle, St. George Chap., Berkshire, England 3 4
            AFN: 1VG5-VKX
         Spouse: Queen Mary (1867-1953) 1 2 3 4 5
           Marr: 6 Jul 1893 - Chapel Royal, St. James Palace 3 4



3 F Louise Victoria Alexandra Alexandra Princess Royal 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 20 Feb 1867 - Marlborough, House, London, England 3 4 5
     Christened: 10 May 1867 - Marlboroughhouse, Westminster, Middlesex, England 3
           Died: 4 Jan 1931 - Portman Square, London, England 3 4 5
         Buried:  - Mar Lodge Chapel, Braemar, Aberdeenshire
            AFN: 1VG4-TB6
         Spouse: Alexander Duff Duke Of Fife (1849-1912) 1 2 3 4
           Marr: 27 Jul 1889 - Buckingham, Palace, London, England 3 4 16



4 F Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary Windsor Princess England 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 6 Jul 1868 - Marlborough, House, London, England 3 4 5
     Christened: 6 Aug 1868 - Marlborough House, Westminster, Middlesex, England 3
           Died: 3 Dec 1935 - Coppins, Iver, Bucks, England 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG5-VL5



5 F Maude Charlotte Mary Victoria Princess 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 26 Nov 1869 - Marlborough, House, London, England 3 4 5
     Christened: 24 Dec 1869 - Marlborough House, Westminster, Middlesex, England 3 5
           Died: 20 Nov 1938 - City Of London, , London, England 3 4 5
         Buried: 8 Dec 1938 - Akershus, Oslo, Oslo, Norway 5
            AFN: 9FWV-48
         Spouse: King Charles Haakon VII Oldenburg King Of Norway (1872-1957) 1 2 3 4
           Marr: 22 Jul 1896 - Buckingham, Palace, London, England 3 4



6 M John Alexander Wettin Prince Of England 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 6 Apr 1871 - Sandringham, Norfolk, England 3 4 5
     Christened: 6 Apr 1871 - Sandringham, Norfolk, England 3
           Died: 7 Apr 1871 - Sandringham, Norfolk, England 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG5-VNK




General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Edward VII King Of /ENGLAND/

Christened Albert Edward; called "the Peacemaker" Reign: 1901-1910; It is not always realized that Queen Victoria was the last sovereign of the House of Hanover and Keng Edward VII was the first of the House of Wettin or the House of Saxony. Edward VII, in an outburst of ant-German feeling engendered by the First World War, changed the nave of his "House and Family" from Wettin to Windsor in 1917. Edward gave his name to the Edwardian period.


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

Towards the end of her life the Queen became almost completely deaf and suffered from mild senile dementia. She resided chiefly at Sandringham House, Norfolk, which Edward VII had purchased as Prince of Wales. In her drives about the countryside she would graciously wave and bow to the cows in the fields, the faithful Princess Victoria always in attendance, Princess of Wales (1863-1901) Queen Alexandra (1901-1910) Queen Mother (1910-1925); Pictures of her as a young woman show a sad, soulful look in her eyes; she walked with a limp (which was imitated by society). She is often shown in pictures wearing gobs of jewelry.


General Notes for Child Albert Victor Christian Wettin Duke

[royalty.ged]

NAME Albert Duke Clarence & Avondale /HANOVER/

Albert Victor Christian Edward, Duke of Clarence; "Eddy". He was of limited intellect, almost ineducable, and when he reached young manhood his dandyism earned him the nickname of "Prince Collar and Cuffs". His sexual proclivities were doubtful and he was believed to frequent a male brothel on Cleveland Street. He became engaged to Princess May of Teck, but before the marriage could take place he succumbed to typhoid fever. Princess May was passed on as fiancee to his younger brother George (later, George V).


General Notes for Child King George V Windsor Of England

George V, (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865-20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House of Windsor in 1917. As well as being King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1927, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, George was also the Emperor of India. George reigned from from 6 May 1910 until his death.

George V was most famous for changing the house name of the British Royal Family from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor. He also relinquished all Germanic titles and styles on behalf of his relatives who were British citizens. In 1931, the Statute of Westminster separated the crown so that George ruled the dominions under a separate title for each land.

Source: Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.com)


General Notes for Child Louise Victoria Alexandra Alexandra Princess Royal

[royalty.ged]

Louise, Duchess of Fife; Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar, Princess Royal. aka LuLu.


General Notes for Child Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary Windsor Princess England

[royalfam.ged]

"Not all information in this family tree has been verified." All corrections are welcome. Updated September 14, 2001

AFN: 9FWV-33


Copyrighted material


General Notes for Child Maude Charlotte Mary Victoria Princess

[royalty.ged]

Princess Maude Charlotte Mary Victoria, later: Maude, Queen of Norway.

NAME Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria Princess Of /ENGLAND/

TITL [QUEEN OF NORWAY]/


General Notes for Child John Alexander Wettin Prince Of England

[royalty.ged]

Died shortly after birth. aka Alexander.


Augustus William Hohenzollern Pr. Of Prussia and Alexandra Of Schleswig-



Husband Augustus William Hohenzollern Pr. Of Prussia 1 2 3 4 5 17

           Born: 29 Jan 1887 - Royal Palace, Potsdam, Brandenburg, Prussia 3 4 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 1949 3 4 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG6-LG3


         Father: Emperor Wilhelm II Hohenzollern Of Prussia (1859-1941) 1 2 3 4 5
         Mother: Empress Augusta Of Germany (1858-1921) 1 2 3 4 5


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Alexandra Viktoria Auguste Princess Of Prussia (1887-1957) 3 -  (Divorced) 3




Wife Alexandra Of Schleswig- 1 2 4

           Born: 1887 4
     Christened: 
           Died: 1957 4
         Buried: 


General Notes (Wife)

Alexandra of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg


Alexandre



Husband Alexandre 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died:  - [677 BC]
         Buried: 


         Father: Basabelian II (      -      ) 6
         Mother: 


       Marriage:  -  (Divorced)




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Priam III 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes (Husband)

!DEATH:edwardiii.ged, edwardiii.ged


Prince Ernest Von Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Princess Alexandria Louise Of England



Husband Prince Ernest Von Hohenlohe-Langenburg 1 2 4

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife Princess Alexandria Louise Of England 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 1 Sep 1878 - , Coburg, S-E-Gt, Thuringia 3 5
     Christened: 2 Oct 1878 - , Coburg, S-E-Gt, Thuringia 3
           Died: 16 Apr 1942 - Hall, Schwabisch, Jagstkreis, Wurttemberg 3 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG6-6VH


         Father: Prince Alfred Ernest Wettin Of England (1844-1900) 1 2 3 5
         Mother: Grand Duchess Mariya Alexandrovna Of Russia (1853-1920) 1 2 3 5



   Other Spouse: Prince Of Hohenlohe Langenburg Ernst (      -      ) 3 - 20 Apr 1896 - , Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Goth, Thuringia 3

Noted events in her life were:
• Alt. Birth 4, 1 Sep 1878

• Alt. Death 4, 1942


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Alexandria Louise Princess Of /ENGLAND/


Prince Of Hohenlohe Langenburg Ernst and Princess Alexandria Louise Of England



Husband Prince Of Hohenlohe Langenburg Ernst 3

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 20 Apr 1896 - , Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Goth, Thuringia 3




Wife Princess Alexandria Louise Of England 1 2 3 4 5

           Born: 1 Sep 1878 - , Coburg, S-E-Gt, Thuringia 3 5
     Christened: 2 Oct 1878 - , Coburg, S-E-Gt, Thuringia 3
           Died: 16 Apr 1942 - Hall, Schwabisch, Jagstkreis, Wurttemberg 3 5
         Buried: 
            AFN: 1VG6-6VH


         Father: Prince Alfred Ernest Wettin Of England (1844-1900) 1 2 3 5
         Mother: Grand Duchess Mariya Alexandrovna Of Russia (1853-1920) 1 2 3 5



   Other Spouse: Prince Ernest Von Hohenlohe-Langenburg (      -      ) 1 2 4

Noted events in her life were:
• Alt. Birth 4, 1 Sep 1878

• Alt. Death 4, 1942



Children
1 M Prince Of Hohenlohe Langenburg Gottfried 3

           Born: 24 Mar 1897 - Langenburg, Jagstkreis, Wurttemberg 3
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 May 1960 - Langenburg, Jagstkreis, Wurttemberg 3
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Margarita Mountbatten Princess (1905-1981) 1 2 3 4 5
           Marr: 1931 3




General Notes (Husband)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Ernst Prince Of /HOHENLOHE LANGENBURG/

MARR PLAC , Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Thuringia


General Notes (Wife)

[royalty.ged]

NAME Alexandria Louise Princess Of /ENGLAND/




Sources


1 Peter Western, </pre><a href="http://www.genealogydatabase.co.uk/tngsoonad.html">http://www.genealogydatabase.co.uk/tngsoonad.html</a><pre>.

2 Edward III Decendents.

3 June Ferguson Unknown, June Ferguson's Royalty GED.

4 ROYAL92.GED Gedcom file.

5 royalfam.ged.

6 J. Feagin, Gedcom from J. Feagin.

7 sargents gedcom.

8 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ancestral File (R) (Copyright (c) 1987, June 1998, data as of 5 January 1998 Repository: Family History Library 35 N West Temple Street Salt Lake City, UT 84150 USA ABBR Ancestral File (R)).

9 No Title Given, 20.

10 Ibid, 41.

11 Ibid, 21.

12 The Mammoth book of British Kings & Queens, Page 511 England (2) - the Illegitimate children of Henry I.

13 Gary Boyd Roberts?-Aug 2000-Pres.GED.

14 No Title Given, 110.

15 Ibid, 98.

16 Ibid, 148.

17 Jiri Louda & Michael Maclagen,Lines of Succession, Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (Macmillan Publishing Co., NY & Toronto, 1991 ABBR Lines of Succession), Table 94.

If you want me to let you know when I change the website, please signup here (no more then once a quarter!)


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 License.




Some of our Favorite Genealogy Links

Maximilian Genealogy Free Searchable Databases-Royals-Famous-Historic-Your Family?